Isnin, 26 Oktober 2009
Sabtu, 26 September 2009
pigment mixed with water-soluble glutinous materials such as size and egg yolk
1) Painting made with a pigment ground in gum, usually gum arabic, and applied with brush and water to a surface, usually paper. The pigment is ordinarily transparent but can be made opaque by mixing with a whiting to produce gouache. Transparent watercolour allows for freshness and luminosity. Whereas oil paintings achieve their effects by a building up of colour, watercolours rely on what is left out, with empty, unpainted spaces being an integral part of the work.
2) A color ground with water and gum or other glutinous medium; a color the vehicle of which is water; -- so called in distinction from oil color.Tempera
tempera (tĕm`pərə), painting method in which finely ground pigment is mixed with a solidifying base such as albumen, fig sap, or thin glue. When used in mural painting it is also known as fresco secco (dry fresco fresco (frĕs`kō) [Ital.,=fresh], in its pure form the art of painting upon damp, fresh, lime plaster.
..... Click the link for more information. ) to distinguish it from the buon fresco (true fresco) applied to damp walls. The name distemper is given to the method when a glue base is involved. When used on wood panels, as it most frequently was for altarpieces and other easel pictures, it was applied on a gesso underpainting that was smooth, very white and brilliant. Tempera's particular advantage is that clear, pure colors are produced, which are not so subject to oxidation as are oils. However, tempera does not lend itself to the expression of nuances of color and atmosphere. Well known from antiquity, tempera was the exclusive panel medium in the Middle Ages and the early Renaissance, and in Italy it was not supplanted by oil until c.1500. In the north oil superseded tempera about a century earlier. Tempera was also much used in combination with oils. In modern times there has been a revival of tempera painting. Böcklin and Hodler in the 19th cent. experimented with it, and some 20th-century American artists, notably Ben Shahn and Andrew Wyeth, have renewed an interest in the old medium. Pigment mixed with egg yolk applied to a sized panel is the common preparation. In industrial art, notably for posters, a simplified distemper is often used. An excellent account of the early Renaissance use of tempera is found in Cennino Cennini's Treatise on Painting (c.1437, tr. 1933).
Khamis, 27 Ogos 2009
some divisions of light/shadow:
highlight: The point closest to the light source where light is most concentrated. Highlights are easiest to see on reflective or glossy surfaces.
light: Half of a hemisphere is lit when a light source is present. We see more of the light side than we do shadow in the illustration at the top right.
shadow: The half hemisphere that is darker (not necessarily dark) which is opposite the lit hemisphere.
core shadow: This is the center of the darkened area. From our vantage point it is a thin crescent.
reflected light: Use this as often as you can. It can help to define the back edge of an object. It occurs in a shadowed area and is caused by light being reflected from another area or created by a secondary light source.
cast shadow: This gives an object a nice sense of space
A sketch is a drawing or other composition that is not intended as a finished work. Sketches usually serve to store ideas for later use. In a similar manner, the word can be used to indicate an impression of something.
Lakaran adalah lukisan atau sesuatu gubahan yang tidak bermaksud kerja atau karya yang sudah siap. Lakaran biasanya merupakan rakaman idea yang boleh digunakan kemudian. Lakaran juga boleh menunjukkan tanggapan dan perasaan terhadap sesuatu.
Drawing is one way of making an image: it is the process of making marks on a surface by applying pressure from or moving a tool on the surface. These marks may represent what the artist sees when drawing, a remembered or imagined scene or abstraction.
Lukisan adalah salah satu cara menghasilkan imej atau gambaran: ia adalah proses membuat tanda di atas permukaan dengan kaedah menekan daripada atau gerakan alat di atas permukaan. Tanda-tanda ini mewakili apa yang dilihat oleh pelukis, ingatan atau gambaran dalam fikiran atau perkara mujarad.
Lukisan biasanya dirujuk dengan penggunaan media kering seperti pensil, pensil warna, arang dll.
Painting is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a carrier (or medium) and a binding agent (a glue) to a surface (support) such as paper, canvas or a wall.
Catan ialah kaedah atau teknik mengenakan pigmen warna yang terdapat dalam bahan perantara (atau medium) dan agen tautan (perekat) kepada permukaan (sokongan) seperti kertas, kanvas atau dinding.
Catan biasanya dirujuk dengan penggunaan media basah seperti cat air, cat poster, cat minyak, akrilik dll.